Regular Expression Find Word Between Two Words

Regular expression is used to : (1) test a string whether it matches a pattern, such as a email address. Tutorial: Python Regex (Regular Expressions) for Data Scientists As data scientists, diving headlong into huge heaps of data is part of the mission. You can use them to constrain input, apply formatting rules, and check lengths. __NEWLINE__), then use this certain string in your regex and finally replace all __NEWLINE__ with again. Softpanorama RegEx page contain basic information about regular expressions. ” Now they have two problems. You can still take a look, but it might be a bit quirky. Example: If ^(h*o^) ^(f*s^) matches "hello folks", ^2 ^1 would replace it with "folks hello". \s is actually used to match any white space character including newline, tab, form feed e. Agenda • Pattern matching in strings – why? • Basics of regular expressions • literals, classes, modifiers • Search/Replace with grep() and gsub() • Live examples • Recommended reading: “?regexp” in R. Regular expressions are very literal. 95 you spent on it in no time. The Ignore Whitespace option must be enabled to use this. The two most important classes in Boost. n matches the character n. The words could and must, That’s why, sometimes, it’s hard to find a regular expression that will match all the cases, and it’s better to use several smaller regex instead. Finding Lines Containing or Not Containing Certain Words. Regular expressions are greedy, they take in as much as they can. The Match() method has two parameters; the string you'd like to match on and the regular expression you'd like to test against. Using the RegEx Builder Wizard The RegEx Builder wizard can be opened from the body of any of the three activities IsMatch , Matches , and Replace , by clicking the Configure Regular Expression button. Regular expressions are text matching patterns described with a formal syntax. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. It came from formal language theory. However, the explanations following each Find/Replace term will benefit anyone looking to understand how to use Notepad++ extended search mode and regular expressions. For example: 89. Regular expressions are very common in some areas of computing, and are often known as regex or regexp. Searching with Regular Expressions. The Java String and Matcher classes offer relatively simple methods for matching and search/replacing strings which can bring the benefit of string matching optimisations that could be cumbersome to implement from scratch. I can identify the repeating words using the following regex \b(\w+)\b[\s\r ]*(\l[\s\r ])+. Regex class can be used to search strings. 2 "basic" REs). Blocking Dictionary Words using Regular Expressions. Non-Greedy Perl Regular Expressions. If it is not found then I would like to search for another regular expression If that one is also not found then I would like to search for a. In Perl regular expressions, the pattern does not have an implicit word boundary. First we'll unpack the three powerful classes residing in the java. hi This is a my current data (extracted from html) I need to delete everything between the first word(e. In the words of Jamie Zawinski: Some people, when confronted with a problem, think “I know, I’ll use regular expressions. There is also fixed = TRUE which can be considered to use a literal regular expression. Whole combination is means, 6 to 20 characters string with at least one digit, one upper case letter, one lower case letter and one special symbol (“@#$%”). will find every file starting with a and followed by any alpha character, upper or lower case,. For example, in Find and Replace, the braces notation {} is used for tagged expressions. When attempting to build a logical “and” operation using regular expressions, we have a few approaches to follow. [abc] means "a or b or c", e. For some people, when they see the regular expressions for the first time they said what are these ASCII pukes !! Well, A regular expression or regex, in general, is a pattern of text you define that a Linux program like sed or awk uses it to filter text. I will call the two Types of regular expressions Posix and Perl. But there are many other cases where we could use a boundary for which regex does not provide explicit syntax. One place where the Python language really shines is in the manipulation of strings. A set of matches - one match for every occurrence of the regular expression found in the text. indicates that the regular expression should match one or more occurrences of the previous atom or regexp. This article is part of a series of articles on Python Regular Expressions. You can think of regular expressions as wildcards on steroids. In a regular expression this is written as: abc(?!. I'm attempting to get the exact match of a word, but I just can't seem to get it. In this case, the order of the two words is switched, while the word "bites" is preserved as is. To avoid it, it is possible to anticipate the sample a marker of the border of a word. (At least, those questions concerning regular expressions. Template - choose the group you would like to extract from the regular expression. xlsx files in the current folder whose names contain the word. The real RegEx is built into the VBScript engine, which is available in all recent Windows versions. While a computer can search for text quickly, it must be told precisely what to look for. Option 3: The Two- or Three-Step Dance (Replace before Matching) I'll expand on this option below when we look at cases more complex than "Tarzan". For grep you can use \<. Well-crafted regular expressions let you reuse step definitions, avoiding duplication and keeping your tests maintainable. The Java Matcher class (java. Your first example was ok. These commands are designed to match a family (alphanumeric, digits, words) of text which makes then versatile enough to handle any text / string class. Use regular expressions to replace all the regular hyphens with a place holder, use find and replace on the remaining hyphens, and switch the regular hyphens back. Find out how RegexMagic enables you to create regular expressions without getting confused by the cryptic regular expression syntax. What if you want to find the same sequence of characters multiple times? you may quickly write something like:. (Note: Regex is short for Regular Expressions. 0 When searching in Vim, you enter a search pattern, aka regular expression or regex. The premier regular expression development tool The award-winning Expresso editor is equally suitable as a teaching tool for the beginning user of regular expressions or as a full-featured development environment for the experienced programmer or web designer with an extensive knowledge of regular expressions. The tables in this section provide examples of expressions that calculate a value in a control located on a form or report. In particular, it uses backtracking to implement "fancy" features such as look-around and backtracking, which are not supported in purely NFA. Indeed, customers have cited some of these as features they couldn’t find in competing GREPs: You get extensive documentation with lots of examples — over 400 KB worth of HTML as of release 8. It's often when numbers mix with text that confusion occurs, and then you need a PowerShell script to solve the problem. Example: If ^(h*o^) ^(f*s^) matches "hello folks", ^2 ^1 would replace it with "folks hello". The POSIX-Extended regular expression syntax is supported by the POSIX C regular expression API's, and variations are used by the utilities egrep and awk. We all know some of them, such as the "*" and the "?" which are used in window's searches. ReplaceText - What the word will be replaced with. I have to take the word OCU from the given string Note: I donot know what string is coming as input and only thing i know is i have to take the last word in the string in this case the last word is OCU. (1) A regular expression must match a single whole word. For example, the pattern "im) abc" would search for abc with the case-insensitive and multiline options (the parenthesis may be omitted when there are no options). Matches, quote. (3) to do complex replacement in a text. In most cases PCRE is backward compatible with the old POSIX 1003. Find unique words in a string using Regular Expressions Regular expressions provide a flexible and efficient way to process text. You can think of regular expressions as wildcards on steroids. PowerShell will capture the first to $1, and the second to $2. To use it in a Word macro, you open the macro editor, click Tools > References, and check the box for "Microsoft VBScript Regular Expressions 5. If you're unfamiliar with the term, a regular expression is simply a string of characters that defines a pattern used to search for a matching string. How do I force grep to search multiple words? How can I grep for multiple patterns on Linux, OS X, FreeBSD, or Unix-like system? The grep command supports regular expression pattern. The table of contents, preface, index, etc. The regular expression looks for a missing word among all of those listed between brackets and separated by the && double character combination. Oracle Database 10g introduces support for regular expressions. A regular expression may have up to 9 tagged expressions, numbered according to their order in the regular expression. Example Try this code ». Regex is a very powerful tool that is available at our disposal & best thing about using regex is that they can be used in almost every computer language. putting regular expressions to use. For example: 89. Although this syntax breaks from tradition, it requires. net regular expressions to replace value between two meta tags. Character ranges and classes in Bash. To create a calculated control, you enter an expression in the ControlSource property of the control, instead of in a table field or query. So this seems like a regex type thing, but I'm still incredibly regex illeterate. Another approach is to highlight matches by surrounding them with other characters (such as an HTML tag), so you can more easily identify them during later inspection. Flags are optional parameters you can add on when creating regular expressions that help aid you in your search. C# Regex class provides pattern matching funcions in form of regular expressions. Use regular expressions to replace all the regular hyphens with a place holder, use find and replace on the remaining hyphens, and switch the regular hyphens back. ? 0 or 1 of previous expression; also forces minimal matching when an expression might match several strings within a search string. , \c Matches any character. In a regular expression (shortened into regex throughout), special characters interpreted are: Single-character matches. GNU grep is the default on all Linux systems. pet is included in the match. As search Forward is enabled by default, you can switch to Backward to reverse the flow of the search. Find any string that has the following two words in it: “dog” and “vet” This is an interesting one, since it's not something that regex is particularly suited for. Simple word matching. Selecting the line that starts with Selection will be made starting from the word till the end of the line. To use it in a Word macro, you open the macro editor, click Tools > References, and check the box for "Microsoft VBScript Regular Expressions 5. info or a manual on the subject. What are Regular Expressions The main purpose of regular expressions, also called regex or regexp, is to efficiently search for patterns in a given text. But the regex syntax allows for special characters and expressions in the pattern:. Textpad Regular Expressions. Those aren't actually variables, which is important. You're probably familiar with using the old MS-DOS wildcard characters. I needed to pull out the CN value. I have an input that can have only 2 values apple or banana. Let's use the match method, which gives us information about the first match it finds, to look at some examples of what matches and what doesn't:. It extends normal Search and Replace with pattern searching. I want to know how to match everything between two words. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Using regular expressions to find the text between two delimiters I have a string like this: “This is a [abcd] string”. , \c Matches any character. Between two characters in the data, where one is a word character and the other is not a word character To run a "spcific word only" search using a regular expression, simply place the word between two word boundaries. Bash's regular expression comparison. Hopefully, now you can read the specifications and get more out of it. pet is included in the match. Between two characters in the subject, where one is a word character and the other is not a word character To run a "whole words only" search using a regular expression, simply place the word between two word boundaries, as we did with ‹ \bcat\b ›. Alternatively, if you set the collate flag when constructing the regular expression, then ranges are locale sensitive. Regular Expression in Java is most similar to Perl. We can look for any king of match in a string e. P: n/a ffreino. Regular expressions (abbreviated as regex or regexp, with plural forms regexes, regexps, or regexen) are written in a formal language that can be interpreted by a. I'm using this in XBMC, if you're familiar with it. JS, I think. Here is the syntax used by Emacs for regular expressions. The first regular expression tries to match this pattern between zero and two times; the second, exactly two times. The syntax in VIM is slightly different then in Perl, but is pretty close. In this example, we have dates entered as a string variable. replace returns the new string with the replaces, but if there weren't any words to replace, then the original string is returned. group(1)[/code] It will fail(by example) if there is more than one [code. Regular expressions can also be used to express spelling variations of individual words. [0-9] stands for a single numeric value (0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 and 9) {1,2} is used for counting occurrences of the previous character or expression. b) Literals (like a,b,1,2…) In Python, we have module "re" that helps with regular expressions. This is also useful when we need to validate form and other database insertion of records by comparing two values. This reveals a second, more serious, problem—the expression matches too much. Here is a brief description of regular expression syntax as used in sed. Regular expressions are by default case sensitive. Outer segmentation says that only whitespace delimits words. The Java Pattern class (java. In simple terms regular expressions are a clever way to find text. For example, the pattern "im) abc" would search for abc with the case-insensitive and multiline options (the parenthesis may be omitted when there are no options). Octal escape values must be 1, 2, or 3 digits long. Regular Expression Syntax¶ A regular expression (or RE) specifies a set of strings that matches it; the functions in this module let you check if a particular string matches a given regular expression (or if a given regular expression matches a particular string, which comes down to the same thing). Regular Expressions. The patterns are interpreted as a set of instructions, which are then executed with a string as input to produce a matching subset or modified version of the original. It gives every string including spaces between "%". see an example. I've been trying to get a specific regex working but I can't get it to do what I need. The pattern defined by the regex may. However, a dot. Sun's Java 1. Lesson 9: All this whitespace When dealing with real-world input, such as log files and even user input, it's difficult not to encounter whitespace. This means that the regular expressions /chr*/ is different from /Chr*/, only because the the first expression starts with a lowercase 'c' while the second starts with a capital 'C'. Update 2014-09-10 Thank you for reading "Compute the intersection of two regular expressions in Python 3". This reveals a second, more serious, problem—the expression matches too much. You can see that the string abc123 does start with an a because of the Success property is True. have been replaced by the text matched by the corresponding groups in the regular expression that was matched by the last call to a matching or searching function (see Str. For matching file names with the glob pattern method, SecureTransport uses org. Java Strings use the backslash as an escape character, as do regular expressions. Sometimes, this includes massive corpuses of text. This page assumes you already know things, like what a "pattern" is, and the basic syntax of using them. The next column, "Legend", explains what the element means (or encodes) in the regex syntax. The two most important classes in Boost. In the following examples, we'll try both techniques: multiply, then simplify; and simplify, then multiply. 5" or whatever is the latest version listed. Typical jobs for Regex are to check for patterns and to match or replace text. no graphics or fancy formating). For example, find ([a-z]{1,}) and replace "\1" expression double quotes all lowercase English strings and substrings: ABCabc becomes ABC"abc". To use it in a Word macro, you open the macro editor, click Tools > References, and check the box for "Microsoft VBScript Regular Expressions 5. To create a calculated control, you enter an expression in the ControlSource property of the control, instead of in a table field or query. Regular Expressions in VBScript. Then we have declared a dictionary and initialize a variable a=0. You can do this in C# with the static method Regex. NOTE : You cannot find leading and trailing spaces in your string values using DQS because DQS automatically trims leading/trailing spaces in string values while checking for domain rules and values. have been replaced by the text matched by the corresponding groups in the regular expression that was matched by the last call to a matching or searching function (see Str. Here: This example has good control over what substring it matches. One reasonably portable way is to use [ [:alpha:]]* The syntax to match at the start of a word also depends on the implementation. The pattern we've used here will only match strings that contain the string back to basics. If you put the Extract Information operator inside a Process Documents operator, it will add a column to your dataset with the results of the match. ) These are the 3 main dialogue boxes we'll be using here. This two-part tutorial helps you get started with regular expressions and the Regex API. To check the length of a string, a simple approach is to test against a regular expression that starts at the very beginning with a ^ and includes every character until the end by finishing with a $. IndexOf and LastIndexOf are inflexible when compared to Regex. When attempting to build a logical “and” operation using regular expressions, we have a few approaches to follow. 1 matches specific tag pairs and content between them. Example 3: Two- and four- digit values for year. So that i can save the selected text to another text file. I tried figuring out myself but had no luck! I am trying to select text between 2 strings (character for the last string) ie: word word2 : I am. Find Any of Multiple Words Problem You want to find any one out of a list of words, without having to search through the subject string multiple times. In this article, we'll use java. Regular expressions are by default case sensitive. You can see that the string abc123 does start with an a because of the Success property is True. In this example, the DATA step creates a subset of North Carolina business phone numbers. So if you are Bash Scripting or creating a Python program, we can use regex or we can also write a single line search query. Regular expressions (regex or regexp) are extremely useful in extracting information from any text by searching for one or more matches of a specific search pattern (i. Breaking up a string into columns using regex in Scala PostgreSQL Command Line Regular Expressions Mathematics AWS True 2 True 3 True 4 True 5 True Name: raw. It's possible to check, if a text or a string matches a regular expression. GNU grep is the default on all Linux systems. Just wanted to say thank you for posting this regular expression. a regex) are a set of pattern matching commands used to detect string sequences in a large text data. newStr = regexprep(str,expression,replace) replaces the text in str that matches expression with the text described by replace. What is regex? A regular expression (or regex) is a simple, rather mindless way of matching a series of symbols to a pattern you have in mind. The regex engine starts at the first token in the regex, G, and at the first character in the string, S. You can find all kinds of matches using Regular Expressions. Lesson 10: Starting and ending So far, we've been writing regular expressions that partially match pieces across all the text. These various regexp implementations differ to some degree in the finery of their details, but the principles for learning to build regexps are common for all. \W*(rocket)\W*. Regular expressions are built into tools like grep, sed; text editors like vi, emacs; programming lan. For example, to catch both the American English word "color" and the British equivalent "colour", instead of searching for two different literal strings. The same two approaches can be applied to rational expressions. Between two characters in the subject, where one is a word character and the other is not a word character To run a "whole words only" search using a regular expression, simply place the word between two word boundaries, as we did with ‹ \bcat\b ›. Javascript directly doesn’t provide trim function to remove white spaces, so we have to use string regular expressions to remove it. w+ matches one or more words / characters b boundary between word and non-word s matches a single whitespace character, space, newline, return, tab, form S matches any non-whitespace character. (3) to do complex replacement in a text. It came from formal language theory. \t, , \r, and \f. How to find consecutive identical words not necessarily in the same line by a regexp? According to the link above \(\<\w+\>\)\s-+\1 can do the job. It literally searches a slash. Nontrivial regular expressions use certain special constructs so that they can match more than one string. Blocking Dictionary Words using Regular Expressions. 12, but many SAS users are unfamiliar with either SAS or Perl regular expressions. Example: If ^(h*o^) ^(f*s^) matches "hello folks", ^2 ^1 would replace it with "folks hello". Template - choose the group you would like to extract from the regular expression. To search multiple words, use following syntax:. Furthermore, that doesn’t restrict the first three letters to word characters, and it only matches words with at least three characters since none of the negated character classes are optional. com, this link proves that it works for Java for example (see group(1)) - mvp Apr 2 '13 at 6:56 Python and/or. You can also refer to characters via their octal, hexadecimal or unicode codes. Finding Lines Containing or Not Containing Certain Words. This will match better, either, and best (the dot will match the t, i, and s in those words). Hi, In my recent grails project, i needed to check the occurrence of a word in a string. Finding a boundary between a word character and a non-word character is convenient, and we can thank \b for that. Regex Tester isn't optimized for mobile devices yet. "REGEXP 'pattern'" REGEXP is the regular expression operator and 'pattern' represents the pattern to be matched by REGEXP. 1)Basic Regular expressions. 2)Interval Regular expressions (Use option -E for grep and -r for sed). In my replacement string, I put $2 first, followed by a comma, a space, and $1. Strings sometimes have quoted values. Online regex tester, debugger with highlighting for PHP, PCRE, Python, Golang and JavaScript. Regular Expressions What Is a Regular Expression? A regular expression is a sequence of characters that defines a certain pattern. Find any string that has the following two words in it: “dog” and “vet” This is an interesting one, since it's not something that regex is particularly suited for. Regex class can be used to search strings. Example: If ^(h*o^) ^(f*s^) matches "hello folks", ^2 ^1 would replace it with "folks hello". The pattern defined by the regex may. The term "Regular Expression" (now commonly abbreviated to "RegExp" or even "RE") simply refers to a pattern that follows the rules of syntax outlined in the rest of this chapter. The regex engine starts at the first token in the regex, G, and at the first character in the string, S. Lesson 9: All this whitespace When dealing with real-world input, such as log files and even user input, it's difficult not to encounter whitespace. So we receive a key-value store based on groups. Using the wrong regular expression can be pointless, aggravating, or — in the worst cases — disastrous. R provides several such functions. A regular expression, or regex for short, is a pattern describing a certain amount of text. Then you can declare a variable in a macro as an object of type RegExp, and use its properties (. A ‘regular expression’ is a pattern that describes a set of strings. It is very simple to study regular expression syntax, and the few abstract concepts can be understood easily too. Regular Expression Syntax¶ A regular expression (or RE) specifies a set of strings that matches it; the functions in this module let you check if a particular string matches a given regular expression (or if a given regular expression matches a particular string, which comes down to the same thing). Typical command would be as below. You can find all kinds of matches using Regular Expressions. I hope you find this page useful to get started in regular expressions. It simply returns a new string. It is often called a pattern as it describes set of strings. However, a dot. It is used in literally every high level programming language we know of in the world, including Visual Basic, C#, Javascript, Java, PHP, Perl, Ruby and dozens more. Since any string of b's can be placed in front of the first a, behind the second a and between the two a's, and since an arbitrasry string of b's can be represented by the regular expression b *, b * a b * a b * is a regular expression for this language. Before we start explaining RegEx in detail, let's run through a few typical Search and Replace operations that can use regular expressions. Analyzing Unicode Text with Regular Expressions In the beginning, regular expressions were assumed to work with text in ASCII, or in some similar legacy character set. com) Desire Output : test. (2) Only letters are searchable. Regular expressions are constructed analogously to arithmetic expressions, by using various operators to combine smaller expressions. I searched a lot, but nothing worked out so i decided to use Regular expression for it. This is an ok technique for small search strings, but it can get cumbersome for larger strings. To take more control of how Splunk searches, use the regex. I want to first search for a specific regular expression. Unlike a word processor, a text editor only handles plain text (i. Remove extra white spaces between words with regular expression. Likewise, `o' is a regular expression that matches only `o'. If you're unfamiliar with the term, a regular expression is simply a string of characters that defines a pattern used to search for a matching string. Word Boundaries. I am trying to use the regular expression in replaceFirst method. For example, a search for "##app. This article is part of a series of articles on Python Regular Expressions. The premier regular expression development tool The award-winning Expresso editor is equally suitable as a teaching tool for the beginning user of regular expressions or as a full-featured development environment for the experienced programmer or web designer with an extensive knowledge of regular expressions. Let’s use the match method, which gives us information about the first match it finds, to look at some examples of what matches and what doesn’t:. Unfortunately, when using the search functionality, only, this regex matches any string Text_1, then the last string text_2! And, I was not able to get the right regex, which could find, in the current file, the first instance of Text_1 , then the last instance of Text_2 :-((. have been replaced by the text matched by the corresponding groups in the regular expression that was matched by the last call to a matching or searching function (see Str. Regex gain. Searching with Regular Expressions. In the meantime, here is the idea: 1. A regular expression in a programming language is a special text string used for describing a search pattern. Your original regex has no interpolated variables, so the regex is only compiled once and we use that copy everytime regardless of the /o modifier. It literally searches a slash. Regular expressions (shortened as "regex") are special strings representing a pattern to be matched in a search operation. You will find answers to all your questions there. Dealing with Regular Expressions. For more info on regular expressions please see http:/. Can anyone give me regex which will satisfy my requirement?. Need a regex to find all words that begin with a letter and contain two letters. With the help of regular expression you can actually find out the two digit numbers and the name of fruits that starts with uppercase letter and then lowercase. Hi, In my recent grails project, i needed to check the occurrence of a word in a string. The following example will show you how to extract substring between the two words using the match() method and a simple regular expression pattern. With more than 140 practical recipes, this cookbook provides everything you need to solve a wide range of real-world problems. Edited by. Here: With groupdict, we eliminate all references to the original regular expression. It escapes characters. How do I extract text between two words (. Regex to find Two Words. You can think of regular expressions as wildcards on steroids. C# Regex class provides pattern matching funcions in form of regular expressions. For some people, when they see the regular expressions for the first time they said what are these ASCII pukes !! Well, A regular expression or regex, in general, is a pattern of text you define that a Linux program like sed or awk uses it to filter text. For example, the regex /^abc. find(): Searches the occurrences of of the regular expressions in the text. When you open Replace in Files there's a Use Regular Expressions option tucked in under Find Options. I want to first search for a specific regular expression. Hello, @andrea-cappelli, The regex given by @per-isakson is quite correct. For example:. Catwoman, vindicate, and other words … - Selection from Regular Expressions Cookbook, 2nd Edition [Book]. Unlike a word processor, a text editor only handles plain text (i. For example, the regular expression hello matches hello and nothing else. Regular expressions allow users to create complicated queries. We use it to format pieces of information to make it easier to read and scan visually, and a single space can put a wrench into the simplest regular expression. 0, plus a one-page reference card in Word format. I suggest that you use sed command. A regular expression in a programming language is a special text string used for describing a search pattern. RegularExpressions. $0$ will extract the entire expression. These patterns are used with the exec and test methods of RegExp, and with the match, matchAll, replace, search, and split methods of String. findstr /R [a-z]*xyz filename. To use this tool, first load one or more texts, then enter your search terms (or regular expressions) in the box provided, one on each line, select any desired options as described below, and click "Run". The first backreference will contain the word the line. NET framework includes full support for regular expressions (Regex), in the System. Understanding regular expressions. To do that, you can use the [regex] type accelerator. \W*(rocket)\W*. What's the RegEx? I will use this in Visual Studio to search for two words Thanks. When you use an anchor in your search expression, the regular expression engine does not advance through the string or consume characters; it looks for a match in the specified position only. Almost all operations with regexes can be characterized by operating on several of the following objec. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: